SOME PROMINENT MARTYRS OF INDIA'S FREEDOM STRUGGLE

The history of our freedom struggle is replete with acts of courage, sacrifice and dedication to the cause of freedom. The heroes of our freedom struggle came from every nook and corner of the country. They did not speak one language, they did not belong to one religion or one caste. An intense love for their country and a keen desire to see it free permeated all their existence. Some of them laid down their lives and immortalised themselves in the annals of our freedom struggle. It is difficult to enumerate the names of all these patriots as a number/of/them would always remain anonymous and their names will never find mention in the pages of history. In the three volumes of 'Who's Who of Indian Martyrs' brought out by the Ministry of Education, list about 10,000 names of persons who were hanged or killed from 1857 to the emancipation of our country in 1947. Included in these volumes are also those patriots who struggled for liberation in the princely states of Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir and the Portuguese territories of Goa, Daman and Diu. We reproduce the life-sketches of some of the important martyrs from these volumes and do hope that it will serve as a source of inspiration to the coming generations.

ABDUL KHADlR MOHAMMED: b. May 25, 1917, at v. Vakkom, Distt. Trivandrum, Kerala; s. of Shri Vavakunju; Ed. upto Matriculation; Took part in the popular movement for responsible government in Travancore State (1938). Went to Malaya before the Second World War. Joined the Indian National Army in Malaya in 1942. Given an intelligence assignment and sent to India by submarine. Landed on the Calicut coast early in 1942, but was detected and arrested by the British authorities. Charged with spying for a foreign power and sentenced to death. Hanged in the Madras Penitentiary on September 10, 1943.

ALLURI SITARAMA RAJU: b.July 4, 1897, at v. Mogallu, Distt. West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh; s. of Shri Venkatarama Raju; Organised the tribal people in Visakhapatnam Agency for a political struggle against the British rulers. Atrocities commi­tted by the British police and officials led him to organise and armed rebel­lion against the British, known as the Rampa rebellion. The tribal patriots, led by him, launched several successful attacks against the British police. An expert strategist and able guerrilla leader, he posed a serious challenge to British authority. A reward of Rs. 10,000 was announced for his arrest.

The cruel British reprisals against the tribal people and their mounting misery impelled him to surrender. A just and chivalrous man, he expected a fair trial and recognition of his people's rights. He was treacherously shot dead by the British police on May 7, 1924.

AMIR CHAND, MASTER: b. 1869 at Delhi, s. of Shri Hukam Chand Vaishya; School teacher; Took active part in social reform and educational activities, such as widow remarriage, temperance and spread of education. Prominent worker in the Swadeshi Movement. Contact with the famous revolutionary leader, Lala Har Dayal, brought him into the revolutionary movement. Became leader of the Ghadar Party. Worked in close colla­boration with Rash Behari Bose and directed revolutionary activities in the whole of northern India. Arrested in February 1914 on the charge of conspiracy to kill Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India, and also accused of of complicity in the Lahore Bomb Case. Known as the Delhi Conspiracy Case, it started with the throwing of a bomb on Lord Hardinge while he was passing on an elephant through Delhi's Chandni Chowk in State procession marking the inauguration of Delhi as the Capital of India. Sentenced to death of October 5, 1914, along with his three compatriots-­Avadh Bihari, Bal Mokand and Basant Kumar Biswas. Died on the gallows on May 8, 1915, in the Delhi Central Jail.

ARUR SINGH: b. 1890 at v. Singhwal, Distt. Jullundur, Punjab; s. of Shri Pal Singh; Ed. upto middle standard; Took part in nationalist activities against British rule. Worked for the Revolutionary Party. Damaged railway track and telephone lines to disrupt communications. Shot and killed several policemen and an informer. Took part in the revolutionary plan to throw a bomb on the Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, at Delhi. Remained underground for 18 months. Arrested in November 1916 at Chuhla Sahib. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Lahore Jail in December 1916.

ASHFAQLLAH KHAN: b. October 1900 at Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh; s. of Shri Shafequllah; Ed. upto eighth standard; Student: Took active part in nationalist activities against British rule. Member of the revolutionary organisation called Matrivedi Sanstha. Participated in the Kakori Mail Decoity on August 9, 1925, and in raids by the revolu­tionaries at Sherganj, Bichpuri and Mainpuri, ete. Arrested and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Faizabad Jail on April 3, 1927

AVADH BIHARI: b. 1889 at Delhi; s. of Shri Govind Lal; Teacher; Took active part in nationalist activities against British rule. Member of the Revolutionary Party. Directed revolutionary activities in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Associate of Rash Behari Bose. Participated in the plot to throw a bomb on Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India. Known as the Delhi Conspiracy, it was carried out on December 23, 1912, when Lord Hardinge was passing through Chandni Chowk, Delhi, in a State procession marking the inauguration of Delhi as the capital of India. Arrested in February 1914 and charged with conspiracy to kill Lord Hardinge and also accused of complicity in the explosion of a bomb in the Lawrence Garden, Lahore, on May 17, 1913. Tried along with his three compatriots-­Amir Chand, Balmokand and Basant Kumar Biswas. Setenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Ambala Central Jail on May 11, 1915.

AZAD, CHANDRA SHEKHAR: b. July 23, 1906, at v. Bhaora, Distt. Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh; s. of Shri Sitaram Tewari. His ancestors origi­nally hailed from v. Badarka, Distt. Unnao, Uttar Pradesh; Student of the Banaras Sanskrit College and later of the Kashi Vidyapeeth; Took part in the Non-cooperation Movement (1921). Arrested at the age of 14 years and punished with fifteen cane strokes. In his court statement, he described his own name as "Azad", his father as "Swadhin" and his address as "the jail". After release; hailed as a young hero. Joined the Indian Revolutionary Party in 1922. Member of the "Hindustan Socialist Republican Army". Took part in several political dacoities", including the "Kakori Mail Dacoity". Declared and absconder and was hunted by the police. Carried a reward of Rs. 30,000 for his capture. Remained underground for several years. Attended the meeting of the Revolutionary Party on September 8, 1928, at Delhi. Appointed "Commander of the Military Division" of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. To avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, he organised, along with Sardar Bhagat Singh and Rajguru, the shooting of British Police Superintendent, J. A. Scott, at Lahore. Scott escaped and the Asstt. Superintendent of Police, J. P. Saunders, was killed. Planned the bomb explosion in the Central Legislative Assembly on April 8, 1929. Successfully evaded arrest by the police for about two years. Betrayed by a companion and surrounded by the police in the Alfred Park at Allahabad on February 27, 1931. Fought alone against the big police party with revolvers in both hands. Killed several policemen and wounded the British Police Superintendent, Nott Bower, the Indian police officer, Bisheshwar Singh. Died fighting the police on February 27, 1931, after his arm and leg had been riddled with bullets.

BARHAT PRATAP SINGH: b. May 25,1893, at Shahpura, Distt. Bhilwara, Rajasthan; s. of Shri Kesri Singh Barhat; Matriculate; Active political worker; Took a prominent part in the revolutionary movement against British rule in India. Joined the Revolutionary Party as a follower of Shri Rash Behari Bose. Participated in the revolutionary plot to throw a bomb on Lord Hardinge, Viceroy of India, on December 3, 1912. His uncle, Shri Zorawar Singh was also a member of this group. Arrested as an accused in the Banaras Conspiracy Case and sentenced, in February 1916, to five years' RI. Subjected to brutal physical torture in the Bareilly Central Jail in order to force him to Divulge the names of his compatriots. He firmly refused and continued to suffer the torture until his death on May 7, 1917.

BABA LAKHU RAM: b. 1870 at Pakpattan, Distt. Montgomery, Punjab (now in West Pakistan); Businessman; Took active part in the Non-cooperation Movement (1921) and dedicated himself to social work. Propagated the ideals of "swadeshi" and agitated for the boycott of foreign goods. Participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). Arrested in August 1930 and imprisoned in the Montgomery Central Jail. Went on hunger-strike on December 7, 1930, in protest against the brutal treatment of poli­tical prisoners in the jail. The jail authorities put him in solitary confinement. He reacted by refusing to take even water from that day. Resisted forced feeding and died on December 13, 1930.

BHAGAT SINGH: b. September 28, 1909, at v. Banga, Distt. Lyallpur (now in West Pakistan); s. of Shri Kishan Singh and Shrimati Vidyavati; Student of the National College, Lahore; joined the revolutionary movement in 1924, when only six­teen years of age. Refused to marry and dedicated his life to the liberation of India. Founded the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, along with other revolutionary leaders. Organised revolutionary activities in Punjab, Delhi and U.P. Planned agitation against the Simon Commission and its recommendations. Attempted to rescue his revolutionary comrades. Shri Jogesh Chatterji and Shri S. N. Sanyal, from the Kanpur jail, where they were detained in connection with the Kakori Mail Decoity Case. Drew up the plan to shoot. J.A. Scott, Senior Suprintendent of Police at Lahore, who had ordered the assault on Lala Lajpat Rai during the demon­stration against the Simon Commis­sion at Lahore in November 1928. Shot and killed J. P. Saunders, Assistant Superintendent of Police, on December 17, 1929. Exploded a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly at Delhi on April 8, 1929, and scattered leaflets. Arrested and sentenced to transpor­tation for life. A sepcial tribunal later enhanced the sentence to one of death by hanging. His two comrades, Sukhdev and Shivram Rajguru, were also sentenced to death. Died fearlessly on the gallows in the Lahore Central Jail on March 23, 1931. Sukhdev and Shivram Rajguru were also executed along with him.

BAKHSHISH SINGH: b. at v. Gillwai, Distt. Amritsar, Punjab; s. of Shri Santa Singh; Took part in natio­nalist activities against British rule. Member of the Revolutionary Party. Took part in the Lahore Bomb Cons­piracy in 1915. Arrested and detained. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Lahore Jail on November 16, 1915. His entire property was confiscated.

BAL, HARIGOPAL: b. at v. Kanun­gopara, Distt. Chittagong, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Pran Krishna Bal; Took active part in nationalist activities against British Rule. Member of the Revolutionary Party. Participated in the Chittagong Armoury Raid on April 18, 1930. Escaped after the raid. Died on April 22, 1930, while fighting against British soldiers on the Jalalabad Hill.

BAL PRABHAS CHANDRA: b. at v. Dhorla, Distt. Chittagong, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Monomohan Bal; Took active part in nationalist activities against British rule. Member of the Revolutionary Party. Participated in the Chittagong Armour Raid on April 18, 1930. Received bullet wound while fighting against British soldiers on the Jalalabad Hill, on April 22, 1930. Died the same day.

BALMOKAND: b. 1889 at v. Khariala, Distt. Jhelum, Punjab (now in West Pakistan); s. of Shri Bhai Mathura Das; Arts graduate; Teacher; Took part in nationalist activities against British rule. Member of the Revolu­tion Party. Prepared and distributed literature calling for a revolt against the British rulers. Trained in the use of arms and throwing of bombs. Arrested in February 1914 on the charge of conspiring to kill Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India, by throwing a bomb while the Viceroy was passing in a State procession through Chandni Chowk, Delhi, on December 23, 1921, to mark the inauguration of Delhi as the capital of India. Also accused of complicity in a bomb explosion in the Lawrence Garden, Lahore, on May 17, 1913. Sentenced to death on October 5, 1914. Died on the gallows in the Ambala Central Jail on May 11, 1915.

BALWANT SINGH: b. 1883 at v. Khurdpur, Distt. Jullundur, Punjab; s. of Shri Budh Singh; Member of the Ghadar Party. Went to the United States of America in 1911 but was not allowed to land at San Francisco. Arrested and charged with the murder of Canadian Emigration Inspector, Hopkinson, who had been actively working against the Indian Sikh community in Canada. Arrested again in 1915 at Bankok and handed over to the British Government. Triad as the Principal accused in the Lahore Conspiracy which aimed at over­throwing British rule through an armed revolt. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Lahore Jail in 1916.

BANERJI, MANINDRA NATH: b. at Banaras, Uttar Pradesh; s. of Dr. Tara Charan Banerji; Took active part in the nationalist movement against British rule. Member of the Revolutionary Party. Shot and killed his maternal uncle, Shri J. N. Benerji, who was the Dy. Supdt. of Police in-charge of investigation in the Kakori Conspiracy Case. Arrested and sentenced to 10 years' R. I. Died in the Fatehgarh Central Jail on June 20, 1934, after completing 66 days of his hunger-strike against brutal treatment.

BARDHAN, SATYENDRA CHANDRA: b. at Bitghar, Distt. Comilla, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Dinesh Chandra Bardhan; Joined the Indian Inde­pendence League in Malaya in 1941. Enlisted in the Indian National Army 1942. Trained in radio communica­tion and revolutionary work. Landed by submarine on the Kathiawar coast. Captured a few hours later and detained in the Madras Fort. Sentenced to death on the charge of spying for an "enemy power". Died on the gallows in the Madras Penitentiary on September 10, 1943.

BASU, BENOY KRISHNA: b. Sep­tember 11, 1908, at v. Rautbhog, Distt. Dacca, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Rebati Mohan Basu; Medical student; Took active part in the nationalist movement. Member of the Revolutionary Party. Shot dead Lowman, I.G. of Police and Hodson, Supdt. of Police, in the Armanitola Medical School at Dacca on August 29, 1930. Escaped arrest and was declared an absconder with a reward for his arrest. Took a leading part in the killing of Simpson, Ins­pector-General Prisons, in the Writers Building, Calcutta, on December 8, 1930. Caught in the firing by his comrades and seriously wounded. Arrested the same day and tortured by the police. Died in the Calcutta Medical College Hospital on December 13, 1930.

BASU, SATYENDRANATH: Resi­dent of Midnapur, West Bengal; s. of Shri Abhay Charan Basu; Teacher in a Government School; Took active part in nationalist movement. Member of the Revolutionary Party and one of the founders of Ananda Math, a revolutionary secret society at Midnapur. Organised the agitation against the partition of Bengal and actively worked for the Swadeshi Movement. Dismissed from Government service in April 1906. Arrested on June 28, 1908, on the charge of involvement in the Muzaf­farpur Bomb Case and in the Alipur Bomb Case. Sentenced to R.I. Partici­pated in the killing of the approver, Narendra Gossain, in the Alipur Jail. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Alipur Central Jail on November 21, 1908.

BISMIL, RAM PRASAD: b. at Shanjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh; s. of. Shri Murlidhar Tewari; High School student; Took active part in the nationalist movements. Members of the revolutionary organisation known as the Hindustan Socialist Republican ­Association. Participated in the Kakori Mail Decoity on August 9, 1925, and in raids by the revolutionaries at Sher­ganj, Bichpuri and Mainpuri, ete. Arrested and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Gorakhpur Dis­trict Jail on December 19, 1927.

BOSE, KHUDIRAM: b. December 3, 1889, at Midnapur, West Bengal; s. of Shri Trailokya Nath Bose; Student of ninth standard; Gave up studies to join the Swadeshi Movement. Became member of the Revolutionary Party. Distributed a pamphlet entitled Bande Mataram. Worked actively in the protest movement against the partition of Bengal in 1905. Arrested on February 28, 1906 but escaped after assaulting the policemen. Arrested again in April and finally released on May 16, 1906. Took part in the looting of mail-bags at Hatgachha in 1907. Participated in the bomb attack on the Bengal Governor's special train near the Narayangarh railway station on December 6, 1907, and was involved in the attempted killing of two Englishmen- Wastson and Bamfylde Fuller-in 1908. Organised a plot, in collaboration with Prafulla Chaki, to kill Kingsford, Sessions Judge at Muzaffarpur, Bihar, for avenging the harsh sentences passed by him against nationalist patriots at Cal­cutta. Threw bomb, on April 30, 1908, at Kingsford's carriage which happened to be carrying a European lady, Mrs. Kennedy, and her daughter. Both of them were killed by mistake. Arrested at Waini railway station and tried for murder. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Muzaffarpur Jail on August 11,1908.

CHAKI, PRAFULLA KUMAR ALIAS DINESH CHANDRA RAY: b. in Distt Bogra, East Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri RaJ Narayan Chaki; Student; Member of Revolutionary Party. Took part in the plot to kill Kingsford, the Sessions Judge at Muzaffarpur, Bihar. Reached Muzaffarpur along with Khudiram Bose. The bomb thrown by them at Kingsford's carriage on May 1, 1908; killed a European lady, Mrs. Kennedy, and her daughter. Chased by the police, he committed suicide the same day by shooting with his own revolver in order to avoid arrest. Khudiram Bose was arrested and later hanged to death.

CHAPHEKAR, BALKRISHNA: b. 1873 at Chinchwad, Distt. Poona, Maharashtra; s. of Shri Hari Chaphekar, Good education in Marathi; Took part in political and revolutionary activities against British rule. Worked with his brother, Damodar Chaphekar, in imparting military training to patriotic Indian youths for overthrowing British rule. Helped in the plan to kill Mr. Rand, Plague Commissioner of Poona, against whom there was great popular resentment. Arrested and tried. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Yervada Jail, Poona, on May 12, 1899.

CHAPHEKAR, DAMODAR: b. June 24, 1869, at Chinchwad, Distt. Poona, Maharashtra; s. of Shri Hari Chaphekar; Good education in Marathi; Took a prominent part in political activities. Organised a society for promoting physical culture and imparting military training to patriotic youngmen with the purpose of over­throwing British rule. Along with his brothers, Balkrishan Chaphekar and Vasudev Chaphekar, he made a plan to kill Mr. Rand, the British Plague Commissioner in Poona. Intense popular resentment had been aroused against Mr. Rand due to his harsh measures for forcibly evacuating the people from Poona during the plague epidemic in 1897. They attacked Mr. Rand at night while he was returning from the Govt. House after partici­pating in the 60th anniversary cele­brations of Queen Victoria's Coronation, held on June 22, 1897. Mr. Rand was killed and also another Englishman, Lt. Ayerst, who was passing that way. Arrested and tried, he was sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Yervada Jail, Poona, on April 18, 1898.

CHAPHEKAR, VASUDEV: b. 1880 at Chinchwad, Distt. Poona, Maharashtra; s. of Shri Hari Chaphekar; Good education in Marathi; Took part in political and revolutionary activities against the British. Collaborated with his brothers, Damodar and Balkrishan Chaphekar, in their work for imparting military training to patriotic Indian youths. Helped in the killing of Mr. Rand, the Plague Commissioner of Poona, as an act of vengeance for his harsh treatment of the people in Poona. Arrested and tried. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Yervada Jail, Poona on May 8, 1899.

CHAUDHURI, PROMODE RANJAN: b. 1904 at Kelisahar, Distt. Chittagong, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Ishan Chandra Chaudhuri; Student; Joined the evolutionary society, called the Anusilan Samiti, at Chittagong in 1920; Took part in the Non-Co-­operation Movement (1921). Parti­cipated in revolutionary activities. Arrested in connection with the Dakshineswar Bomb Case. Sentenced to R. I. in 1925. Killed the Deputy Commissioner of Police, Bhupendra Nath Chatterjee, on May 28, 1927, in the Alipur Jail. Sentenced to death; Died on the gallows on September 28, 1926.

DAS, JATINDRA NATH: b. 1904; Resident of Calcutta, West Bengal; s. of Shri Bankim Chandra Das; Took active part in the nationalist move­ment against British rule. Member of the Revolutionary Party. Arrested on June 14, 1929, for complicity in the “Lahore Conspiracy Case" connected with the bomb explosion in the lawrence Garden, Lahore, killing a peon. Detained in the Lahore Central Jail. Went on hunger-strike in protest against the brutal treatment of political prisoners. Died in the Lahore Jail on September 13, 1929, after fasting for 63 days.

DAS GUPTA, NIRENDRA NATH: b. 1896 at v. Madaripur, Distt. Faridpur (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Lalit Mohan Das Gupta; Member of the Revolutionary Party. Arrested for complicity in the Faridpur Cons­piracy Case of 1913. Released after serving jail sentence. Shot and killed Nirode Haldar, a C.I.D. officer, at Calcutta in 1915. Participated in the revolutionary plan to unload arms and ammunition from the German ship Maverick on the Orissa coast. Wounded and arrested in the encounter with the armed police at Kaptipoda, Distt. Balasore, Orissa, on September 9, 1915. Tried and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Balasore Jail on October 1915.

DASTIDAR, TARAKESWAR: b. at v. Saroatali, Distt. Chittagong, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Chandramohan Dastidar; Member of the Revolutionary Party. Injured in 1930 in an explosion while manufacturing bombs. Took part in the Chittagong Armour Raid in 1930. Became leader of the "Indian Republican Army" after the arrest of his chief, Surya Sen. Directed revolu­tionary activities while underground. Arrested on May 18, 1933, after an armed encounter with the police in the house of Purna Talukdar at Gahira. Sentenced to death, Died on the gallows in the Chittagong District Jail on January 12, 1934.

DHANSHETTI, MALLAPPA: b. 1898 at Sholapur, Maharashtra; s. of Shri Revansidhappa Dhanshetti; Ed. upto Sixth standard; Employed in a private firm; Took active part in the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) as a prominent and influential political worker of Sholapur. Led a procession of people protesting against the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi on May 8, 1930. The police fired on the procession and several people were killed. In the resulting clash between the police and the demonstrators, one police constable was killed and another burnt alive. Martial Law was clamped in Sholapur and he was arrested along with other leaders. Tried for rioting and murder. Sentenced to death and a fine of Rs. 2,000. Died on the gallows in the Yervada Jail, Poona, on January 12, 1931.

DHINGRA. MADAN LAL: b. in Punjab; Studied at Amritsar and Lahore and then went to England. Joined the University College of Engineering at London in 1906. Took part in Indian revolutionary activities in Britain. Undertook training in the use of fire-arms. Shot and killed Col. William Curzon Wyllie, Political A.D.C. in the India Office, at a gathering in the Imperial Institute, London. Declared it to be an act of "humble revenge for the inhuman hangings and transportation of patriotic Indian youths." Arrested and tried for murder. Sentenced to death. Died on gallows at the Pentonville Prison, London, on August 17, 1909.

GUPTA, DINESH: b. December 6, 1911, at v. Jasholong, Distt. Dacca, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Satish Chandra Gupta; Member of the Revolutionary Party. Took part in the shooting of Simpson. Inspector-General of Prisons, In the Writers' Building, Calcutta, on December 8, 1930. Wounded in the attempt to commit sucide. Arrested and tried for murder. Brutally tortured in jail. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Presidency Jail, Calcutta, on July 7, 1931.

HAJRA, (SMT.) MATANGINI: b. 1870 at v. Hogla, Distt. Midnapur, West Bengal; Widow of Shri Trilochan Hajra; Took part in nationalist activities during the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). Participated in the Salt Satyagraha and in the agitation against the Chowkidari Tax in 1930. Arrested in 1932 for shouting "Go back" at the Bengal Governor during a Durbar at Tamluk. Released after serving the sentence of 6 months R.I. Resumed political and social work. Took part in the Quit India Movement (1942). Led a procession to the Ramluk Civil Court for hoisting the tricolour on September 29, 1942. Received bullet wound in firing by a military unit. Died on the spot with the tricolour in her hand.

HARI KRISHAN: b. June 1909 at v. Ghalladher, Distt. Mardan, North-­West Frontier Province (now in West Pakistan); s. of Shri Gurdas Mal; Student; Took active part in the Khudai Khidmatgar Movement and the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, a revolutionary society. Participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). Made plan to shoot and kill the Governor of Punjab, Sir Geoffrey de Montmorrency. Carried out the plan and shot at the Governor at the annual convocation of the Punjab University at Lahore on December 23, 1930. The Governor was wounded and a police officer was killed. Arrested and tried for conspiracy and murder. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Mianwali Jail on June 9, 1931.

KALANI, HEMU: b. March 11, 1924, at Sikkur, Sind (now in West Pakistan); s. of Shri Pesumal Kalani; Ed. upto Matriculation, Student; Member of many organisations working for independence. Took a prominent part in the "Swarajya Sena" in Sind which was founded by Dr. Mangharam with the aim of inculcating discipline among the youth and inspiring them to work for the country's freedom. Took active part in the Quit India Movement (1942). Distributed anti-British leaflets and bulletins. Removed fish-plates of railway track near Sukkur on the night of October 23, 1942, in order to derail a British military train carrying troops to be used for crushing the nationalist agitation. Arrested on the spot. Tried by court martial and sentenced to imprisonment for life. Later, a higher military court enhanced the life sentence to one of death by hanging. Died on the gallows in the Sukkur Central Jail on January 21, 1943.

KENHERE, ANANT: b. 1891 at Indore; s. of Shri Laxman Kanhere; Ed. upto sixth standard; Student; Took part in political activities against British rule. Member of the revolutionary society called Abhinav Bharat. One of the main accused in the "Jackson Murder Conspiracy" of Nasik. In collaboration with Vinayak Narayan Deshpande and Krishnaji Karve, he carried out the plan. Shot and killed Jackson, the District Magistrate of Nasik, on December 21, 1908. It was done to avenge the harsh sentence passed by Jackson, on Ganesh Vinayak Sarvarkar. Arrested and tried. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Thana Jail of April 19, 1910.

KHANDUA, PRITAM: b. May 1894 at Fort Sundayman, Baluchistan (now in West Pakistan); s. of Shri Mengha Khandua; Matriculate; Joined the revolutionary parry known as the Kranti Dal and took active part in anti- British activities. Arrested at Jammu and tried on the charge of shooting a police constable. Sen­tenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Montgomery Central Jail on May 18, 1934.

KONWAR, KUSAL: b. at Sarupathar, Golaghat Sub- Division, Assam; Ed. upto seventh standard; Tea Estate employee and President, Sarupathar Congress Committee; Took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) and in the Quit India Movement (1942). Arrested on suspicion of involvement in the derailment of the British military train near the Sarupathar railway station on October 9, 1942. Tried on a charged of sabotage. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Jorhat Jail on June 16, 1943.

LAHIRI, RAJENDRA NATH: b. 1892 at v. Mohanpur, Distt. Pabna, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); Resident of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh; s. of Shri Kshitish Mohan Lahiri; Owner of a big estate; Took active part in nationalist activities against British rule. Member of revolutionary organisation called the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. Arrested and sentenced to imprisonment in the Dakshineswar Bomb Case. Participated in the Kakori Mail Dacoity on August 9, 1925, and in raids by the revolu­tionaries at Sherganj, Bilchpuri and Mainpuri, ete. Arrested and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Gonda Jail on December 17, 1927.

MATHRA SINGH (Dr.): b. at v. Dhudial, Distt. Jhelum, Punjab (now in West Pakistan); s. of Shri Hari Singh; Chemist; Joined the revolu­tionary movement and went to San Francisco" U. S. A., in July 1913 to work for the Ghadar Party. Went to Shanghai, China, in December 1913 for preparing and disseminating anti-British literature. Visited Germany and Afghanistan in connection with the revolutionary work and secretly entered India again. Worked at the secret head­quarters of the revolutionary party in Amritsar and prepared bombs. His presence was detected by the British Indian Police and a prize ofRs. 2,000 was announced for his arrest. Captured by the police and tried for 'treason'. Sentenced to death in March 1917. Died on the gallows.

MITRAM ANANTAHARI: b. 1906 at v. Begumpur, Distt. Nadia, West Bengal; s. of Shri Ram Lal Mitra; Took part in the Non-Cooperation Movement (1921). Joined the Revolutionary Party and organised revolutionary activities at Krishnagar. Prepared bombs at Dakshineswar. Arrested on November 10, 1925, as an accused in the Dakshineswar Bomb Case. Sentenced to imprisonment for life. Killed Bhupen ChatteIji, the Deputy Superintendent of Police, while in Jail. Tried for murder and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Alipur Central Jail on September 28, 1926.

PATHAK, SOHAN LAL: b. January 7, 1883, at v. Patti, Distt. Amritsar, Punjab; s. of Shri Chanda Ram; Ed. upto middle standard; Primary school teacher; Took keen interest in nationalist activities. Resigned from the teaching job as a protest against the Head Master's order to break off his contacts with Lala Lajpat Rai and other leaders. Became Joint Editor of the Urdu journal Bandemataram under Lala Lajpat Rai. Went to Thailand, the Philippines and the U.S.A. in 1914. Joined the Ghadar Party in California, U.S.A. Took up the assignment of creating revolt among the Indian soldiers of the British army stationed in Burma, Malaya and Singapore. Indian soldiers in Singapore revolted in March 1915, but were brutally put down and arrested. Many were shot dead. Arrested in August 1915 in Burma while trying to organise an uprising. Tried for conspiring against the Government and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Mandalay Jail (Burma) on February 10, 1916.

PHADKE, VASUDEV: b. November 4, 1845, at Shirdhon, Distt. Kolaba, Maharashtra; Ed. upto primary standard; Government servant; Tried to organised a national revolt against the British. Successfully recruited a large number of followers from the Ramoshi tribe in Bombay Presidency and built up an armed force. Attacked British installations and communications and seized money from a few Government Treasuries. The British considered him a dangerous enemy. Carried on his activities for a number of years until he was captured by the British on July 3, 1879. Sentenced to transpor­tation for life, he was sent to Aden and kept in detention under inhuman conditions. Died on February 17, 1883, after undertaking a fast unto death.

PINGLE, VISHNU GANESH: b. January 1888 at v. Talegaon, Distt. Poona, Maharashtra; Engineering graduate from the University of Seattle, U.S.A.; Member of the Indian Revolutionary Party. Took active part in organising a revolt against the British in the armed forces. Travelled throughout the country under various pseudonyms. Visited Meerut military cantonment, in March 1915 to contact Indian soldiers. Arrested on March 23, 1915, with high-explosive bombs in his possession. Charged with cons­piring to "create disaffection" among the army soldiers and conspiring to overthrow British rule. Sentenced to death along with 23 others. The death sentences of 17 of them were commuted to imprison­ment for life in November 1915. Died on the gallows in the Lahore Central Jail on November 17, 1915. Six of his comrades-Sikh soldiers in the Army-were also executed the same day in the Lahore Central Jail.

RAJGURU, SHIVRAM: b. at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh; s. of Shri Hari Rajguru of Poona; Member of the Revolutionary Party. Took a leading part in revolutionary activities against British rule. Close associate of the revolutionary leader, Bhagat Singh. Took part in the shooting of J. P. Saunders, Assistant Superinten­dent of Police, at Lahore on December 17, 1928. Arrested on September 30, 1929, in a motor garage in Poona. Tried as one of the principal accused in the Lahore Conspiracy Case of 1930. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Lahore Central Jail on March 23, 1931, along with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev.

RAM RAKHA: b. at Hoshiarpur, Punjab; Took a prominent part in revolutionary activities against British Rule. Member of the Ghadar Party. Worked in association with Lala Sohan Lal Pathak for creating a revolt among Indian soldiers of the British army in Burma, Malaya and Singapore. Arrested in Burma in 1915 and tried as one of the principal accused in the Mandalay Supple­mentary trial. Sentenced to transpor­tation for life and imprisoned in the Andaman Cellular Jail. Subjected to inhuman torture by the jail authorities. Died in 1919 after being on hunger-­strike for several days.

RANADE, MAHADEO: b. 1880 in Maharashtra; s. of Shri Vinayak Ranade; Student of the Government Science College, Poona; Took active part in nationalist activities against British rule. Associated with the Chaphekar brothers in imparting physical training to Indian youth. Helped them in the shooting of two British officers, Rand and Lt. Ayerst. Assisted Vasudeo Chaphekar in the shooting of two police informers, Ganesh and Ramchang. Made the bullets used in the shooting. Arrested and tried for murder. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Yervada Central Jail, Poona, on May 10, 1899.

RATTAN SINGH: b. in Punjab; Took active part in the Babbar Akali movement. Arrested in April 1932 along with ten other Akalis. Attacked the escorting police party in the railway train near Bhatinda and escaped. A reward of Rs. 3,000 was announced for his arrest. Surrounded by the police in a hut in Rurki village, Distt. Hoshiarpur. Fought against the police and killed three policemen. Received several bullet wounds and died before the police could arrest him.

RAUT, BAJI: b. 1925 at v. Nilkantha­pur, Distt. Dhenkanal, Orissa; s. of Shri Hari Raut; Boatman and volun­teer of the Praja Mandal in the Dhenkanal State; Undertook the task of keeping vigil of the movements of the State police and troops at the Nilkanthapur Ghat on the Brahmini river during the reign of terror let loose against the people by the State authorities in 1938. On the night of October 10, 1938, a number of policemen and soldiers tried to force him to take them across the river in his boat. The twelve-year-old boy refused to do so and told them that they were enemies of the people. A soldier struck him on his head with the butt of his gun and his skull was fractured. Despite his serious injuries, he raised an alarm and warned the villagers about the arrival of the soldiers and policemen. He died the same night due to excessive loss of blood. A mob of villagers collected at the ghat and tried to prevent the soldiers from crossings the river. Several villagers were killed in firing by the troops. The bravery and patriotism of young Baji Raut has been immortalised in the poem "Boatman" by the famous Oriya poet, Sachi Routray.

RAY CHAUDHURI, CHITTA­PRIYA: Resident of Madaripur, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); Student; Joined the Revolutionary Party and took active part in the execution of its plans. Arrested in December 1930 for complicity in the Faridpur Conspiracy. Released in April 1914. Worked in close associa­tion with the well-known revolu­tionary, Jatin Mukherji. Took active part in Jatin's plan to obtain arms and ammunition from Germany, Japan, the United States of America and the Dutch East Indies. Went to Balasore (Orissa) with his leader, Jatin, and his comrades Narendra Das Gupta and Monaranjan Sen Gupta in September 1915 to take delivery of arms from the German ship Maverick His group was intercepted by the armed police at Kaptipoda on the bank of the river Buribalam on September 9, 1915. Received bullet wound during the encounter with the police that day and died.

SAHA, GOPI NATH: b. at Serampore, Distt. Hooghly, West Bengal; s. of Shri Bejoy Krishna Saha; Student; Member of the Revolu­tionary Party. Took part in the Non-­cooperation Movement (1921) and in revolutionary activities. Took up the assignment of killing Police Commissioner Tegart at Calcutta. Made a mistake in identifying Tegart and shot another Englishmen, Mr. E. Day, on January 12, 1924. Chased and arrested by the Police. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Alipur Jail on March 1, 1924.

SAI, SURENDRA: b. January 23, 1809, at v. Borgaon, Distt. Sambalpur, Orissa; s. of Shri Dharam Singh; Prince of the Chauhan royal family of Sambalpur State and claimant to the throne; Arrested in 1840 by the British, along with his brother Udanta Sai and his uncle Balram Singh, on the charge of murdering the Zamindar of Rampur. All the three were sentenced to imprisonment for life and lodged in the Hazaribagh Jail. Set free by rebel soldiers during the Revolt of 1857. Reached Sambalpur with his brothers in September 1857. The British Asstt. Commissioner rejected his claim to the throne and he retired to his village named Khinda. Secretly organised an armed force and challenged British authority in the State. Resorted to guerrilla warfare against the superior British forces. His brother, Chaabilo Sai, and 58 other men of his force were killed in a battle with British troops in January 1858 at Dudupali. Remained in hiding till April 1861 when the new British Deputy Commissioner, Major Impey, declared an amnesty to the rebels if they surrendered voluntarily. Met Major Impey in May 1862 with 40 followers and was granted freedom, and a pension. Arrested again in January 1864 by the next Deputy Commissioner along with his three brothers, Udanta, Dhruva and Medini, and three of his important, followers. Charged with sedition and conspiring against British authority. All were sentenced to transportation for life, but were acquitted on appeal. Arrested again along with his brothers and the three followers and detained in the Asirgarh Fort Jail at Nagpur. Became blind and died in jail on February 28, 1884, Udanta Sai and Medini Sai also died in jail.

SARBA, KARTAR SINGH: b. 1896 at v. Saraba, Distt. Ludhiana; Punjab; s. of Shri Mangal Singh; Member of the Ghadar Party. Went to San Francisco, U.S.A. and worked at the Ghadar Party's press. Returned to India and visited Agra, Meerut, Banaras, Kanpur, Allahabad, etc., to urge Indian soldiers to rebel against the British. Arrested as a leader of the Lahore Military Conspiracy to overthrow British rule. Sentenced to death and confiscation of property. Died on the gallows on November 16, 1915.

SAYEED, BABU GENU: b. 1908 at v. Mahangule, Distt. Poona, Maharashtra; s. ofShri Gyanaba alias Genu; Ed. upto fourth Standard; Mill worker; Took active part in the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). Participated in the Salt Satyagraha and picketed liquor shops and those selling foreign cloth. Lay down in front of a truck loaded with foreign cloth at a textile godown near Princess Street, Bombay on December 12, 1930. Crushed under the wheels of the truck. Died the same day in the G. T. Hospital, Bombay. The lane where this incident took place has been named after him. The people on his village established a high school in his memory and set up his statue.

SEN GUPTA, MANORANJAN: b. in Distt. Faridpur, Bengal' (now in East Pakistan); Student; Joined the revolutionary party of Bengal and took part in activities against British rule. Arrested in December 1913 as an accused in the Faridpur Cons­piracy Case. Released in April 1914 on the withdrawal of the case by the Government. Resumed his nationa­list activities under the leadership of the famous revolutionary, Jatindra Nath Mukherjee. Participated in the successful revolutionary raids at Garden Reach, Beliaghata and Cor­poration Street in Calcutta. Escaped and remained underground. Took part in the abortive attempt to unload arms and ammunition which were brought secretly for Indian revolutionaries by the German ship Maverick on the Orissa coast. Ambushed by the police at Kapati­pada, near Balasore, on September 9, 1915. In the encounter with the police, the leader, Jatindra Mukherjee, and Chittapriya Roy Chaudhry were killed. Captured by the police and tried along with his comrade, Nirendra Das Gupta, for the attempted murder of the District Magistrate and the policemen. Both of them were sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Balasore Jail on November 22, 1915.

SEN, SURYA ALIAS MASTERDA: b. October 18, 1893, at v. Noapara, Distt. Chittagong, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); s. of Shri Rajmani Sen; Graduate in Arts; Teacher in Umatara High School, Chittagong; Joined the Revolutionary Party in 1918. Took part in the Non-­cooperation Movement (1921). Became the leader of the Chittagong branch of the militant revolutionary organisation known as the Indian Republican Army. Took part in organising the political dacoity in the Pahartali railway office on December 23, 1923. Escaped arrest and remained underground. Set up revolutionary centres in the tea­garden areas of Assam-Silchar, Karimganj, Gauhati, Sibsasgar, ete. Arrested and tried, but was acquitted. Arrested again in 1924 and detained without trail for four years. Planned and executed the famous raid on the British armoury at Chittagong on April 18, 1930. Led the attack on the armoury and seized the magazines and guard room. Fought against British soldiers on the Jalalabad Hill on April 22, 1930. Evaded arrest by the police and directed revolutionary activities from his secret hide-out. Detected in the house of Sabitri "­Chakrabarty at Patiya and surrounded by a military squad on June 13, 1932. Dodged the squad and slipped away after a brief encounter. Again surrounded by armed police and soldiers at Goiralal on February 16, 1933. Gave a tough fight but was finally captured. Subjected to brutal beating and torture by the police. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Chittagong Jail on January 11, 1934.

SHRISH KUMAR: b. December 28, 1926, at Surat, Gujarat; Student; Took active part in the Quit India Movement (1942). Prepared and distributed anti-Government bulletins and organised resistance against the repressive policies of the British authorities. Led a procession of students through the town of Nandurbar on August 10, 1942. The procession was subjected to lathi-­charge at Mangal Bazar. The students led by him defied the police orders and proceeded to Manek Chowk. The police resorted to firing in which he received bullet wound. Died clutching the tricolour and trying to shield girl students at whom the police had aimed their rifles.

TAJI MIDEREN: Resident of v. Elopain in the Ithun valley, Distt. Lohit, North-East Frontier Agency; Farmer and trader; Took part in the activities against British rule and killed three British officers near the Dikrang river in 1905. Organised his Mishmi fellow-tribals for resisting the expansion of British authority. Established a Mishmi Confederacy under Pangon and other Mishmi leaders. A British expedition was sent to his village in 1913 for arresting burnt down the houses in the village, but failed to arrest them. Captured by the British police at Sadiya in December 1917, and deported to Tezpur in Assam. Tried and sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in the Tezpur Jail on January 29, 1918.

THANGAL(GENERAL): b. in 1806 at v, Thangal, Imphal, Manipur; s. of Shri Khetri Singh; General of the Manipur Army; Fought bravely against the British to repel their invasion of independent Manipur State. Captured by the British, along with Maharajkumar Bir Tikendrajit Singh and Major-General Paonam Naol Singh; in 1891. Sentenced to death by the British for "waging war against the British Crown and abet­ment of the murder of European officers." Died on the gallows on August 13, 1891, at Keithel Achouba.

TIKENDRAJIT SINGH, MAHA­RAJKUMAR BIR: b. December 25, 1858, at Imphal, Manipur; s. of Maharaja Chandra Kirti Singh of Manipur; Good education in Hindi and local languages, Yuvaraj and Commander-in-Chief of Manipur Army; Took a leading part in· resisting British intervention in the affairs of independent Manipur State. Countered British plots to overthrow the Maharaja. Fought bravely against the British invasion. Captured by the British in 1891, along with his Generals, Thangal and Paonam Naol Singh. Sentenced to death by the British for "waging war against the British Crown and abetment of the murder of European officers". Died on the gallows on August 13, 1919, at Keithel Achouba.

UDHAM SINGH: Resident of Amritsar, Punjab; Brought up in an orphanage in Amritsar after the death of his parents; Received early education at Amritsar. His tender mind was deeply shocked by the horrible scenes of cruelty and carnage at the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, on April 13, 1919, when hundreds of people were brutally killed and wonded by British troops in firing with machine-guns ordered by General Dyer. Took a vow to avenge the injustice and the brutal behaviours of the British towards his countrymen. Went to England and joined and Engineering course in London. Obtained a 6-chamber revolver and ammunition. Shot and killed Sir Michael O'Dyer (who was Governor of Punjab when the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy took place) at a meeting of the Royal Central Asian Society and the East India Association in the Caxton Hall, London, on March 13, 1940. Arrested and tried for murder. Sentenced to death. Died on the gallows in London on June 12, 1940.

NARAYANA RAJU: b. 1920 at v. Vempadu, Distt. West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh; s. 0 Shri Krishna Raju; Took part in the Quit India Movement (1942). Established centres for imparting physical training to patrioticy young men. Shot and killed in August 1942 by the police while leading a procession at Bhimavaram with the tricolour in his hands.

WADDEDAR, (KM.) PRITILATA: b. May 5, 1911, at V. Goalpara, Distt. Chittagong, Bengal (now in East Pakistan); daughter of Shri Jagat Bandhu Waddedar; College student at Calcutta; Member of the student organisations known as Dipali Sangh at Dacca and Chhatri Sangh at Calcutta. Took part in revolutionary activities and worked under the leadership of Surya Sen. Surrounded by the police in the house of Sabitri Chakrabarty at Patiya in Distt. Chittagong, along with Surya Sen and other revolutionaries. Escaped arrest and remained underground. Led an unsuccessful attack on the Pahartali European Club at Chittagong on September 22, 1932. Committed suicide on the spot swallowing cyanide poison poison in order to avoid arrest.